History of Bangladesh Police can be traced back in pre-historic period. There were presence of police in different periods in different names even in ancient period. Existence of police in this region can be traced in Kautily’s Arthashastra in ancient period. Present police is the result of gradual reformation facilitated by different rulers of different periods. Foundation of the modern policing was laid down with the enactment of Police Act of 1861. Bangladesh still adheres to this act with little amendments.

Police Bureau of Investigation (PBI) is relatively a new unit of Bangladesh Police which was raised on 18 Sep 2012 to investigate hi-tech, clueless and sensational cases throughout the territory of Bangladesh. Proper investigation of registered cases play vital role in criminal justice system. PBI is established with an aim to investigate criminal cases in a very professional manner and facilitate to establish rule of law in the society.

Prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of social order, execution of process of court, traffic management, support vulnerable groups, introduce community policing etc are core functions of Bangladesh Police. In general, Sub Inspectors and Inspectors of Police Stations (PS) cause investigation of cases. Detective Branch (DB) and Criminal Investigation Department (CID) also investigate serious and clueless cases.

Criminals often commit dacoity, murder, robbery, theft, burglary, extortion, rioting, bodily injury, cruelty to women etc which are punishable under the Penal Code and Special laws of Bangladesh. With the passage of time, there has been a major change in nature of crime, modus operendi and tools used to commit crime. Cyber crime, Trafficking in Human Being (THB), Money Laundering, Terrorism etc have replaced the traditional nature of crime. Police officers are required to be trained, equipped and motivated to investigate new dimensional offences in order to control crime and maintain social order.

Courts on some occasions opined in different judgments to take steps to enhance quality of investigation of criminal cases. Honourable Prime Minister of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh also declared her government’s decision to form a dedicated Police unit to cause investigation of serious cases while addressing senior police officers during Police Week in 2011 at International Convention Centre (ICC). Police Headquarters sent a formal proposal to the Ministry of Home Affairs to carry out the decision of the PM in the same year and PBI came into effect on 18 Sep 2012.

As a part of 1st phase, position of a Deputy Inspector General, 2 Additional Deputy Inspector General, 9 Special Superintendent of Police, 70 Additional Superintendent of Police, 4 Assistant Superintendent of Police, 210 Inspector, 280 Sub Inspector, 121 Assistant Sub Inspector and a total of 970 personnel (including civil staff) was sanctioned. PBI has set up with this sanctioned manpower its offices in all metropolitan areas, divisional headquarters and 29 districts (21 old and 8 new). In addition to metropolitan, division and districts, PBI has set up a Specialised Investigation & Operations (SI&O) unit in PBI HQ with highly trained officers and equipped with modern gadget to run Counter Terrorism Unit (CTU) and investigate Cyber crime, organized crime and other transnational crimes.

In Apr 2014, PBI proposed ‘Police Bureau of Investigation Regulations’ to provide guidelines to carry out its functions which was promulgated on 5 Jan 2016. Meanwhile, PBI commenced investigation of cases by taking up a case with the order of the court of Narshingdee on 10 Jun 2015. The case was investigated in a very professional manner and police report was submitted to the court which was compatible to world class investigation. The court was highly impressed and appreciated police investigation. This information was disseminated to other courts and hundreds of cases were transferred to PBI by different courts in different parts of country in a month time. PBI is taking pride with the confidence bestowed by courts and investigating cases with utmost sincerity and in a highly professional manner.

It is expected to expand PBI’s offices to all 64 districts soon while sanction of additional manpower is obtained in the 2nd phase. PBI is pledged to investigate cases in a very professional manner adhering to international standard crime scene management, evidence collection and dispose cases without unnecessary delay to bring offenders before court, allow victims to get justice and facilitate to establish rule of law in the society.